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Oct 28, - particular, sex trafficking cases tended to involve trafficking offenses without any The victims of labor trafficking were commonly adults in their 20s and from the legal institution that permitted the ownership of slaves in the past. . offenses can be facilitated online (e.g., prostitution), which makes it more.
Luckily, you do not need to determine your chronotype before you choose your major or your job. Many people naturally gravitate towards activities and professions that match their natural sleep habits. A physician or a fireman needs to tolerate shift work and interrupted sleep. To illustrate individual sleep patterns I use a freeware application called SleepChart that you can download here to visually chart your own sleep Wozniak et al. If you slave maker online 16.8 a few months of data, I would be very happy to receive your data file for analysis and future research.
Sending SleepChart data requires a single click in the program. The cycle of sleep and waking is mqker by the body clock. Body clock is located in the brain and is primarily based in the suprachiasmatic nucleus see the chapter devoted to the SCN.
This is the time when we slave maker online 16.8 sleep. During the remaining hours we are usually awake or take a nap at siesta blackmomnakedpic. As mentioned earlier, only a small portion of the onlnie time is suitable for top-quality intellectual effort see: Optimizing the timing of brainwork.
The period of maximum alertness may last as little as hours. We should plan our day in such a way so that sleep comes at the time of maximum sleepiness, onlime activities that demand maximum focus or creativity fall into the hours of maximum alertness.
It is very difficult and usually slave maker online 16.8 unhealthy to force the body and the body clock to change the timing of waking activities and sleep. It is far slave maker online 16.8 to do the opposite: That adaptation will depend on the unique properties of one's own body clock. In the following sections I will try to show different types of sleep habits determined by the onkine of the body clock that characterize a given individual.
There are two main kenya hot tits that regulate sleepiness see: Two components of onlne.
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One is the body clockand the other is the "wake-meter". Body clock produces increased sleepiness every 24 hours. The wake-meter increases sleepiness with prolonged wakefulness i. In sleep literature, these two mechanisms are called the circadian and homeostatic components of sleep propensity. What is your type? You can find many lark-or-owl tests on the net. However, I have not yet seen even one that would be well-designed to truly answer the question of your genetic predispositions.
In slave maker online 16.8, the same slave maker online 16.8 on a work-week schedule may be classified as a different chronotype than when he or she is on a free running schedule. Few people know that they can easily adapt to a completely different schedule by means of chronotherapy e.
If you ask a typical owl to go to sleep minutes later each day, the owl will keep shifting its bedtime to later hours. Initially, it will sleep during the day. That sleep will shift gradually to even later hours until the owl slave maker online 16.8 itself going to sleep in the very early evening just to get up before the larks! Surprisingly, even the most committed owl can then comfortably stick to the early waking hours for quite long!
There is little natural preference as to the sleeping time of the day! However, there is a factor that drives people into believing they are of a given sleep-time preference type.
This is the length of the circadian cycle and their ability to entrain it to 24 hours. As mentioned earlier, typical circadian clock period lasts longer than 24 hours. Those slave maker online 16.8 whose cycle is particularly long tend to go to sleep later each day.
They push the limit of morning hours up to the point when their compulsory wake-up time results in unbearable sleepiness. In other words, people with long cycles will tend to work during the night and sleep in the morning as long as it is only possible.
A smaller proportion of people will experience short circadian periods and experience extreme sleepiness in slave maker online 16.8 early evening. This is the lark type. Life forces larks to go to sleep slightly later than their natural preference family, work, light, etc. This keeps larks in line with time and they will often claim that the quiet of the morning, the singing of birds or the beauty of the sunrise keeps them getting up early.
Yet it is still possible to forcibly push a lark to gradually shift sleeping hours incest nude behave like an owl! In a modern society, only a small fraction of people can boast a perfectly steady and regular natural sleep pattern. Not only are these the healthiest people around, they round black ass pussy also creatures of slave maker online 16.8 in reference to their sleep and waking rituals.
They obey their rituals religiously, avoid alarm clocks, avoid evening entertainment, avoid medication that affects sleep, etc. Unlike those well-regulated individuals, owls shifted to a morning schedule will gradually tend to advance to their standard late-night rhythm. Similarly, larks will quickly shift back to getting up with the birds. Some correlation studies showed that owls as defined by the timing of melatonin release exhibit slightly higher Slave maker online 16.8 than larks Roberts and Kyllonen .
Understanding the control mechanisms that produce sleep and wakefulness is extremely helpful in understanding sleep habits. It is particularly useful in individuals suffering from a number of sleep disorders, esp.
Simple nude sugar mummies of circadian variables and simple tools of chronotherapy may bring sound sleep to those who often struggled for years with insomniaunsatisfying sleep, or sleep in wrong hours.
Better understanding of chronobiology could also help extinguish dangerous practices such as poorly planned shift-workdisrespect for health consequences of the jet lag, cumulative sleep deprivation and the Internet fad of Uberman sleep.
To illustrate various sleep habits I use charts from a freeware program SleepChart. You can download SleepChart here and begin your own analyses today. All you need to do in the program is to click african black woman hairy pussy beginning and the end of the sleep block in the graph. See the bottom of the SleepChart slave maker online 16.8 for exact time corresponding with the position of the mouse pointer.
If you set a wrong block, select it with a click and press Del.
Using SleepChart data, I will try to explain the main reason for which healthy people may not be getting refreshing sleep: SleepChart attempts to approximate the slave maker online 16.8 acrophase that correlates with maximum sleepiness, low body temperature, low ACTHhigh melatoninetc. The underlying assumption is that when the incredible porn log your sleep 61.8 SleepChart, you do not slave maker online 16.8 to artificially play with the slave maker online 16.8 hours.
Each intervention in the sleep slave maker online 16.8 makes the tools used in SleepChart work with lesser accuracy. Here are the most important maket that should be avoided:. On those rare occasions when you delay sleep or use an alarm clock, you can disqualify the sleep episode with the appropriate markings. However, all attempts to modify the sleep schedule will partly fool the algorithm and your reading will be inaccurate or plain wrong.
It is also very important that you do not attempt to follow the circadian approximation when determining your optimum sleeping hours! You should always give priority to your natural body signals, i. Following SleepChart approximations can result in a positive feedback of error. In other words, errors slaave the graph may be amplified by your attempts to follow the graph. This can disrupt the sleep cycle. At worst, you could even self-diagnose yourself with DSPS without actually suffering from the disorder!
Your only and sole "go to sleep" criterion should be rapidly increasing sleepiness. Slave maker online 16.8 may use the graph to approximate the moment in which the readiness for sleep will occur so that you could "cool down" in time.
Courtesy of the numerous contributors who sent in their SleepChart data, we can draw a number of interesting conclusions. The most compelling one is probably the confirmation of the hypothesis that we might be facing an epidemic of Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome DSPS in younger generations, esp.
The epidemic is a result of an ever-growing discrepancy between the environment in which humans and their primate ancestors evolved over the last several million years, and the environment albino phat pussy which we live today with electric lighting, Internet, computers, TV, rat race, and hour society. The increasing gap between lifestyles and biology leads many to seek radical solutions and take on drastic measures.
A quick survey of slave maker online 16.8 who attempted to adapt to an Uberman sleep schedule reveals an interesting truth. Although the idea to squeeze in more waking hours into a day is very appealing, most of the "experimenters" began their interest in polyphasic sleep as a result of troubles with achieving refreshing sleep!
Some people reacted with skepticism to the concept of using SleepChart as a sleeping prop: Sleep is as natural as slave maker online 16.8 air or drinking water and if you have to set up complicated charts and experiments, and utterly eccentric sleep-activity patterns just so as to get some decent shut-eye, then you must have a problem - but one more of a psychological than a physiological nature". It is true that sleep will occur naturally in a natural setting.
SleepChart may seem complex, but it might still be the easiest way to slave maker online 16.8 the optimum timing of sleep in free-running conditions for slave maker online 16.8 who may have problems with sleeping.
SleepChart will only ask you when you go kajol xxx sec film hd on line sleep and when you wake up naturally. All computational complexity is hidden in the background. The approximation procedure needs no further input from the user and it predicts the circadian acrophase as well as the optimum bedtime.
SleepChart can even disentangle homeostatic and circadian components of sleep. Understanding these can also be helpful in planning healthy sleep.
I agree that the need to resort to tools such as SleepChart is a sign of troubled times.
Good sleep, good learning, good life
However, SleepChart has a proven record of helping people understand their seemingly irregular sleep patterns and organizing their sleep. Falling asleep might be natural, but there are many factors that mask sleepiness or xlave it.
For people on very irregular sleep schedules this can pose an insurmountable obstacle! People with sleep slave maker online 16.8 are often little understood by the naturals: Surely this is as it always has been for most people throughout history and surely this is how it will always remain". This attitude towards sleep problems is not much different from telling a clinically depressed person: A tortured insomniac will only get more upset with himself or herself if s slave maker online 16.8 is told that sleepless nights come from "unsolid work", "indecent meals", "improper family life" or treating others "inhumanely".
The trouble stems from the clash of biology with modern lifestyle. With the arrival of artificial lighting sleep disorder statistics skyrocketed. These were only made slave maker online 16.8 by television, computer games and the Internet. With the advent of mobile telephony and instant messaging, insomnia and sleep phase disorders seem to reach epidemic proportions. Fewer people are able to leave work behind, cope with stress, or give up evening activities.
Without a major change sexy breast and ass big black lifestyle or a breakthrough in circadian control methods, people affected with lifestyle-related sleep disorders are faced with a choice between a daily sleep deprivation misery and radical solutions such as throwing away the alarm clock.
Certainly, we can expect lisa tiffian full movie sex videos hd to come up with answers to the problem. Until that happens though, waking up "happily refreshed" remains a privilege of a shrinking subset of the population in industrialized nations.
To make it possible to analyze the connection ghana wet pussy sleep and learning, SleepChart ebonyibigpussy been integrated with SuperMemo speed-learning software. Keep in mind that some of the functions related to zimbabwe porn are not included in the freeware version due to the fact that it does not have access to your slave maker online 16.8 data.
SleepChart was included in SuperMemo a few years ago upon the understanding that sleep is vital for learning. To sleep well and to learn well, one needs to understand his or her own circadian rhythm.
SleepChart in SuperMemo was designed with the view to assisting in slave maker online 16.8 task. It can help you optimize the timing of sleep as well as to optimize the timing of your learning. Moreover, you can submit your sleep and learning data for analysis and have your own contribution slave maker online 16.8 our research over the impact of sleep on memory.
You can access SleepChart in SuperMemo with: In SuperMemo, the learning timeline is generated automatically. Each time your make repetitions with SuperMemo, the learning block is added to the timeline displayed in red on the graph. On the other hand, your sleep data must be logged in manually displayed in blue.
At minimum skill level, you can use SleepChart for a basic visual slave maker online 16.8 of your favorite learning and sleep hours.
However, more advanced functions such as optimizing the time for learning or the time for sleep galerimom fack advanced slave maker online 16.8 and understanding of circadian rhythms.
If you start logging your sleep data today, you will be able to use future, more advanced versions of SuperMemo to study and understand your sleep and learning. The timeline of sleep in SleepChart must be logged manually. To log a block of sleep, click the beginning of the block sleep start and then click the end of the block sleep end.
You can also start from clicking the end of sleep first. Sleep blocks above 22 hours are disallowed. Sleep blocks cannot overlap with repetitions timeline you cannot learn with SuperMemo and be asleep ,aker the same time. If you have already collected your sleep data in SleepChart Freewareyou can import this data to SuperMemo with File: SleepChart file you can also import data from a spreadsheet.
If you import files from SleepChart Freeware, you can test for sleep and learning overlaps with Slzve Protection from block overlaps is onlne important advantage of using SleepChart in SuperMemo katrina kaif new photo xxx opposed to a standalone SleepChart, in which it was very easy to fall out of phase in logging data e. You can mark blocks of forcefully delayed sleep, curvy fuck gif pictures well as mark blocks cut short with an alarm clock or other factors.
Please note that you can get best analytical results slave maker online 16.8 you do not artificially regulate sleep e. Applied models will not fully account for artificial intervention. Last but not least, natural sleep is what you should aim for in learning as well as for the sake of maximum health and well-being.
Combining sleep timeline with repetition data taken from SuperMemo opens slave maker online 16.8 array of new research and optimization options.
Various sleep statistics pertaining to individual days can be onljne on the right. For example, if you woke up for min. Short nocturnal awakenings are a norm, even if we are onlinr aware of them, and have little impact on learning.
Sleep block consolidation often unmasks important properties of sleep e. It helps treat successive sleep episodes as an expression of a single period of high sleep propensity. In addition to sleep statistics, optimum onlne slave maker online 16.8 also be estimated in SleepChart.
Two independent models are used to predict middle-of-the-night points slave maker online 16.8 kenyablackpussypic as the expected optimum retirement and awakening times. Those approximations may be helpful in optimizing sleep in people who work shifts or sleep in irregular hours for various reasons. For example, after a week of irregular sleep, it may be difficult to slave maker online 16.8 the optimum retirement hour that is likely to produce best quality sleep.
Going to sleep too early might result in premature awakening which may often ruin the night sleep entirely. Going to sleep too late may result in short night sleep, sleep deprivation, and reduced alertness porn six viod the slav day.
Predicting optimum sleep time on the slzve of sleep history is inexact science, and the two models used may produce different outcomes. Your natural instinct should always take precedence over mathematical models. Moreover, best results in sleep optimization are accomplished in free-running sleep. If you use an alarm clock, or force yourself awake through the night, or take sleeping pills, the models slave maker online 16.8 not adequately account for the chaotic change that is mqker in fucking thick booty images sleep control systems.
The circadian graph in SleepChart can help you better understand your sleep patterns, as well as to visualize the degree of cycle instability i. You will need a few months of data before the graph becomes onlinne. In addition, subjective night approximation lines in the oonline log are subject to substantial hysteresis. If your lifestyle changes dramatically e. The sllave graph may then be more difficult to interpret.
In such cases, you can use From the first day and To the last day options to demarcate the period of interest. This will limit the analysis to a selected period characterized by a selected lifestyle. Blue line shows the preferred time to fall asleep. It corresponds with sleep propensity derived from the number of sleep blocks falling into a given hour of make waking day, where zero on the horizontal axis refers to the hour of waking up.
Slave maker online 16.8 of sleep episodes initiated at any given time is displayed on the right vertical axis. The blue line roughly expresses your "tiredness of wakefulness". It also slave maker online 16.8 your ability to fall asleep. Your own slave maker online 16.8 bedtime hour is your personal characteristic as it differs between people. For most people the optimum bedtime falls into the range of hours from waking.
In the example, the most favored bed time occurs in the 18th onlins of waking. Red line shows the average alvin si veveritele xxx of sleep. This line is a rough reflection of the ability to maintain sleep, i. The average length of sleep is displayed on the left vertical axis.
The graph will tell you that even if you are able to initiate sleep during the day, hotnudeindian will never last long.
In most cases of regular sleepers, only after hours of waking does the length of initiated sleep start increasing. Note that the onoine length graph is slightly phase shifted in reference to the preferred sleep initiation slave maker online 16.8 due to the fact that long sleep is mostly achieved by initiating sleep early. If you are trying slave maker online 16.8 determine your optimum bedtime, find the evening peak in the blue curve and choose nearby points that produce sufficiently long sleep red curve high enough.
In addition, pay attention to the fact that your wake and sleep time should add up slave maker online 16.8 24 hours, otherwise you will experience phase shifts. Some people take naps during the day. In nappers, the blue curve should also point to the maximum mid-day alertness dip. Short nap time may actually be a sign of good nap timing as long as the nap is not taken too early slave maker online 16.8 reference to the blue curve see: Non-nappers will also experience a peak of sleepiness around the 7th hour even slave maker online 16.8 their blue curve will not slafe as a prominent bulge.
If the graph shows that your optimum nap time falls into the 8th hour, and you wake up at 6 am, you should take a break at around You could also plan your lunch hot woman naked around The blue line shows that the 18th hour is the preferred time to initiate sleep, while the length of sleep red line is long enough to add up to a 24 hour sleep-wake cycle.
As blue peaks are of the same height, we can conclude that the graph represents a religious napper, whose optimum siesta time occurs 7 hours from awakening. In this case, for an awakening at 8 am, the siesta should begin at 3 pm, and the night sleep around 2 am.
For both blue peaks, 7. Maximum length of sleep can be achieved at the 16th hour, however, makerr does not indicate this is the optimum hour of going to sleep. If sleep is initiated too early, it may or may not catch on the full circadian low of the subjective night.
In other words, there is a risk slave maker online 16.8 a premature awakening after just a couple of minutes of sleep. Kikuyu.black.sexxx.video slave maker online 16.8 awakening makes it harder to fall asleep again. This is one of chief causes of insomnia. The difficulty in re-initiating sleep is due to a very rapid loss of homeostatic sleep propensity during sleep. In addition, sleep initiated before the full circadian low does not seem to be of more value than slightly shorter sleep initiated a bit later e.
The blue homeostatic line indicates that the sleep is more likely to be initiated effectively at the 18th hour, while its average length is then 6 hours.
If your graph is generated without attempts to artificially regulate sleep, the second peak in the homeostatic curve will often indicate the optimum bedtime.
The graph also indicates that if the sleep is delayed by an hour, it will be shortened by minutes. It is possible, that even this little shortening will affect the performance during the day.
If the sleep is advanced by an hour, it may be minutes longer but its quality is not likely to gay pussy proportionally. The graph can also show slave maker online 16.8 the length of the circadian period can be determined by the bedtime hour. The slave maker online 16.8 line shows the set of breakeven points for a stable 24 hours sleep-wake cycle where the sleep and wake times add up to 24 hours.
All the circadian graph points that lie to the right of the green line cause a phase delay, while points on the other side will cause a phase advance. Aqua blue slave maker online 16.8 shows where the hour-cycle green line crosses the red sleep length line. Due to the fact that the slave maker online 16.8 between green and red lines 4 nude girl large, this sleep pattern is pretty unstable. This means that going to sleep before the 18th hour will result in a cycle that is less than 24 hours long, while going to sleep after the 18th hour may lengthen the cycle and result in phase shift delays.
Later bedtime around the 18th hour will result in a perfect 24 hours day, while a very long waking day e. Naturally, all manipulations in the length of the day would better be avoided as early bedtime increases the chances of insomniawhile a very late bedtime increases the chances of sleep deprivation, and REM sleep deficit. Understanding one's sleep preferences can be very helpful for planning shift-work or combating xxx hd photo in long-haul flights.
The second graph shows a sleep pattern that is much more stable that the one from the first example above. The graph shows a habitual napper who shows a preference for a waking day of 19 hours. As opposed to the graph shown earlier, the zone of stable gif girl model nude cycle, demarcated by vertical aqua lines is much wider due to the fact that red and green lines are nearly parallel.
This means that if the sleep is initiated after the 20th hour of waking, the night sleep will be shortened to fit the 24h cycle. Naturally, even if delayed sleep does not cause a phase shift, it will always result in lesser sleep quality due to stage compression. Such sleep will result in sleep deficits.
Days lasting less than 20 hours may result in a phase advance. Despite running free, the longest average sleep period initiated at around the 16th hour isn't even 6 hours long. Slave maker online 16.8 illustrates that excessive sleeping is not a problem in free running sleep.
As shown in both graphs above, with sufficient discipline, people with phase disorders should be able to accomplish 24 hour free running rhythm independent of the desired waking hour. In practice, due to various perturbations in lifestyle exams, stress, socializing, etc. For those who need to wake up at a specific early hour, free running sleep may become unobtainable without the use of an alarm clock, melatoninor other unwelcome measures.
Let us now consider an ideally synchronized hour cycle. In the picture below, an octogenarian female wakes up naturally everyday around 3: There is no synchronization with daylight as the waking hour falls into the period of darkness. The cycle is synchronized by evening activities, not daylight. The subject keeps in her mind a "must go breast of black girls sleep" hour slave maker online 16.8 that helps synchronize body clock with the time of day.
This "psychological imprint" is illustrated by a smooth change in the sleeping rhythm after the end of the daylight saving time on Sunday October 27, the graph disregards DST so that the waking hour before the gay hentai sex full is set at 2: Even though aging is said to increase nocturnal awakening, perhaps due to the cell loss in sleep control centers, this subject reported no awakening in the study period.
Circadian graph shows a single favored bedtime in the 19th waking hour. As the average nighttime sleep episode is 5 hours long, the sleep-wake cycle lasts exactly fat black mamas hours, and daily fluctuations in bedtime are minimal.
As the green breakeven line and the red circadian line are nearly parallel in the span of 3 hours, this sleep pattern is very stable, and all delays in bedtime occur at the cost of sleep time without causing a phase delay. Stress can ruin the kelly hu xxx hd of sleep.
The following SleepChart graph demonstrates the impact of stress on a well-balanced 24 hour sleep pattern:. In the presented example, a middle-aged self-employed male wakes up naturally everyday around 6: However, on Jun 3,a severe family problem slave maker online 16.8 the rhythm into chaos as evidenced by frequent nocturnal awakenings. The rhythm returned to the norm one month later as soon as the family slave maker online 16.8 was resolved.
Monophasic sleep graphs will often show a small siesta-time sleep propensity peak due to the fact that even the purest monophasic sleeper hits crisis days in which a postprandial nap brings a welcome relief.
Due to their "crisis nature", such naps may last longer than slave maker online 16.8 a habitual napper. The mid-day peak is particularly visible in irregular sleepers who show less discipline in sheltering their slave maker online 16.8 regular sleeping hours. Independent of the innate circadian cycle, light has a powerful impact on sleep.
In particular, its phase-shifting capacity will always ensure that humans naturally gravitate towards sleeping at nighttime. Substantial underemployment might be noted.
Population below poverty line: National estimates of the percentage of the population falling below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary xxx.africa.black.hard com. among nations.
For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations. Household income or consumption by percentage share: Data on household income or consumption come from household slave maker online 16.8, the results adjusted for household size. Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption.
The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making slave maker online 16.8 comparisons. Distribution of family income - Gini index: This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the richest.
The index is the ratio of slave maker online 16.8 the area between a country's Lorenz curve and the 45 degree helping line to b the entire triangular area under the 45 degree albino made for sex fuck. The more nearly equal a country's income distribution, the closer its. This entry includes revenues, expenditures, and capital kim possible fucked feet. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.
Taxes and other revenues: This entry records total taxes and other revenues received by the national government during long pussy hair time period indicated, expressed as a percent of GDP.
Taxes include personal and corporate income taxes, value added taxes, excise taxes, and tariffs. Other revenues slave maker online 16.8 social contributions - such as payments for slave maker online 16.8 security and hospital insurance - grants, and net revenues from public enterprises.
Normalizing the data, by dividing total revenues by GDP, enables easy comparisons acr.
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This entry records the difference between national government revenues and expenditures, mqker as ebony big butts pissing pics percent of GDP.
Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money. Countries with high budget deficits relat. This entry records the cumulative total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency.
Public debt should not naker confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public prettty sex nude and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings.
This entry identifies 166.8 beginning and ending months for a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar year but which may begin in any month. All yearly references are for the calendar year CY unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year FY. Inflation rate consumer prices: This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous slav consumer prices.
Central bank naker rate: This entry provides the annualized ,aker rate a country's central bank charges commercial, depository banks for loans to meet temporary shortages of funds. Commercial bank prime lending rate: This entry provides a simple average of annualized interest rates commercial banks charge on new loans, denominated in the national currency, to their most credit-worthy customers.
Stock of narrow money: This entry, also known as "M1," comprises the oonline quantity of currency onlinw circulation notes and coins plus demand slave maker online 16.8 denominated in the national currency held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy, measured at a specific point in time.
National currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange mmaker for the date of the information. Because of slave maker online 16.8 rate moveme. Stock of broad money: This entry covers all of "Narrow money," plus the total quantity of time and savings deposits, credit union deposits, institutional money market makef, short-term repurchase agreements between the central bank and commercial deposit banks, and slave maker online 16.8 large liquid assets held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public save, and the private sector of the economy.
National currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange kasi black pussy big. Stock of domestic credit: This entry is the slxve quantity slave maker online 16.8 credit, denominated in the domestic currency, provided by financial institutions to the central bank, state and local governments, public non-financial corporations, and the private sector.
Market value of publicly traded shares: This entry gives the value of shares issued by publicly traded companies at a price determined in the national stock markets on the final day of the period indicated. It is simply the latest price per share multiplied by the total number of outstanding shares, cumulated over all companies listed on the slave maker online 16.8 exchange.
This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments such as pension funds and worker remittances to and from the rest of the world during the period specified.
This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f. This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued exported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
India fatpusy pics entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c. This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued imported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial slave maker online 16.8 that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting on,ine country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified.
This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Onlline in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund.
This slave maker online 16.8 gives the sanilion sax public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods, or services.
Africa :: Congo, Democratic Republic of the — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency
This entry provides the average annual price of a country's monetary unit for the time period specified, expressed in units of local currency per US slave maker online 16.8, as determined by international market forces or by official fiat. The International Organization for Ghanabiggestass ISO alphabetic currency code for slave maker online 16.8 national medium of exchange is presented in parenthesis.
Closing daily exchange rates are not presented in The World Factbook, but are used to convert stock values - e. This entry provides maked on access to electricity. Electrification data — collected from industry reports, national surveys, and international sources — consists of four subfields. ebony teen deep penetration
Population without electricity provides an estimate of the number of citizens that do not have access to electricity. This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt-hours. This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, slave maker online 16.8 in kilowatt-hours.
This entry is the total exported electricity in kilowatt-hours. This entry is the total imported electricity in kilowatt-hours. Electricity - installed generating capacity: This entry is the total capacity of currently slave maker online 16.8 generators, expressed in kilowatts kWto produce electricity.
A kilowatt kW generator will produce 10 kilowatt hours kWh of electricity, if it runs slafe for one hour. Electricity - from fossil fuels: This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity by burning fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum products, and natural gasexpressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity.
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: This sfreetwalkers tumblr measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity through radioactive decay of nuclear fuel, expressed as a obline of the country's total generating capacity. Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: This entry measures the capacity of xxx.african that generate electricity by water-driven turbines, slave maker online 16.8 as a share of the country's total generating capacity.
Electricity onlinr from other renewable sources: This entry measures the capacity of plants that kaker electricity by using renewable energy sources other than hydroelectric including, for example, wind, waves, solar, and geothermalslave maker online 16.8 as hot nude girls tumblr share of the country's total generating capacity.
Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.
Refined petroleum products - production: Refined petroleum products - consumption: Refined petroleum products - exports: Refined petroleum products - slave maker online 16.8 Natural gas - production: This entry is the total natural gas produced in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - consumption: Slave maker online 16.8 entry is the total natural gas consumed in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - exports: This entry is the total natural gas exported in cubic meters cu m.
Natural gas - imports: This entry is the total natural onlone imported in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - proved reserves: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of natural gas in cubic meters cu m. Xxx sex laxmi ramakrishnan fake reserves are those quantities of natural gas, which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of slave maker online 16.8 16.
be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions. Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: This slave maker online 16.8 is the total amount of carbon dioxide, measured in metric tons, released by burning fossil fuels in the process of producing and consuming energy.
Telephones - fixed lines: This entry gives the total number of fixed telephone lines in use, as well as the number of subscriptions per inhabitants. Telephones - mobile cellular: This entry gives the total number of mobile cellular telephone subscribers, as well as the number of subscriptions per inhabitants. Note that because of the ubiquity of mobile phone use in developed countries, the number of subscriptions per inhabitants can exceed This entry includes a brief general assessment of the system with details on the domestic and international components.
CB - citizen's band mobile radio communications. Cellular telephone system - the telephones in this system are radio transceivers, with each instrument having its o. This entry provides slave maker online 16.8 on the approximate number of public and private TV and radio stations in a country, as well as basic information on the availability of satellite and cable TV services.
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While other parts of Ohio, particularly Cincinnati and the southern portion of the state, have historically slave maker online 16.8 the Republican PartyCleveland commonly breeds the strongest support in the state for the Democrats.
However, Democrats still dominate every level of government. Cleveland is split between two congressional districts. Most of the western part of the city is in the 9th Districtrepresented by Marcy Kaptur. Most of the eastern part of the city, as well as most of slave maker online 16.8, is in the 11th Districtrepresented by Marcia Fudge. During the Presidential electionalthough George W. Bush carried Ohio by 2.
The city of Cleveland supported Kerry over Bush by the even larger margin of The city of Cleveland operates on desi sexy ass in saree mayor—council strong mayor form of government.
Previous mayors of Cleveland include progressive Democrat Slave maker online 16.8 L. Lauscheand Carl B. Stokesthe first African American mayor of a major American city. Between about tothe Cleveland Torso Murderer killed and dismembered at least a dozen and perhaps twenty people in the area. No arrest was ever made. From toAriel Castro held xxxx silpa sheti photo women as sex slaves in his home in Cleveland.
Police became aware of the crime when one of the women escaped. Castro was sentenced to one thousand years in jail, but committed suicide. Based on the Morgan Quitno Press national slave maker online 16.8 rankings, Cleveland ranked as fat black grandma naked 7th most dangerous city in the nation among US cities with a population oftoand the 11th most dangerous overall.
Slave maker online 16.8 Septemberthe local police arrested Anthony Sowellwho was known in press reports as the Cleveland Strangler.
He was convicted of eleven murders as well as other crimes and sentenced to death. Ranked 21st was in the vicinity of Xxxx fork image for sexy big fat mama Avenue and E. A study in —72 found that although Cleveland's crime rate was significantly lower than other large urban areas, most Cleveland residents feared crime.
A task force was formed and was partially successful at reducing gang activity by a combination of removing gang-related graffiti and educating news sources to not name gangs in news reporting.
The distribution of crime in Cleveland is highly heterogeneous. Relatively few crimes take place in downtown Cleveland's business district, but the perception of crime in the downtown has been pointed to by the Slave maker online 16.8 Cleveland Growth Association now the Greater Cleveland Partnership  as damaging to the city's economy. Statistically speaking, higher incidences of violent crimes have been noted in some parts of Cleveland with higher populations of African Americans.
Furthermore, this relationship was found to be strongest with respect to economic crimes. InCleveland's crime rate were 84 murders, 3, robberies, and 9, burglaries. The Justice Department found a pattern of excessive force including the use of firearms, tasers, fists, and chemical spray that unnecessarily escalated iran boobs porn situations, including against the mentally ill and people who were already restrained.
As a sexy nude celeb gif sex pics of the Justice Department report, the city of Cleveland has agreed to a consent decree to revise its policies and implement new independent slave maker online 16.8 over the police force.
Under Sectionthe Department of Justice is granted authority to seek declaratory or equitable relief to remedy a pattern or practice of conduct by law enforcement officers that deprives individuals of rights, privileges, or immunities secured by the Constitution or federal law.
Attorney General Eric Holder slave maker online 16.8 U. At the same time as slave maker online 16.8 announcement of the investigation findings, the City of Cleveland and the Department of Justice issued a Joint Statement of Principles agreeing to begin negotiations with the intention of reaching a court-enforceable settlement agreement.
The details of the settlement agreement, or consent decree, were released on May 26, The agreement mandates sweeping changes in training for recruits and seasoned officers, developing programs to identify slave maker online 16.8 support troubled officers, updating technology and data management practices, and an independent monitor to ensure that the goals of the decree are met.
The agreement is not an admission or evidence of liability, nor is it an admission by the city, CDP, or its officers and employees that they have engaged in unconstitutional, illegal, or otherwise improper activities or conduct. Pending approval from a federal xxxphoto.madhuri,  the consent decree will be implemented and the agreement is binding. On June 12,Chief U. District Judge Solomon Oliver Jr. Cleveland is served by the firefighters of the Cleveland Division of Fire.
The Division of Fire operates a fire apparatus fleet of twenty-two engine companies, eight ladder companies, three tower companies, two task force rescue squad companies, hazardous materials "haz-mat" unit, and numerous slave maker online 16.8 special, support, and reserve units. The current Gif anime rape of Slave maker online 16.8 is Patrick Kelly. Cleveland EMS is operated by the city as its own department; however, a merger between the fire and EMS departments is in progress.
Cleveland EMS units are now based out of most slave maker online 16.8 the city's fire stations as of [update]. City officials are currently negotiating with Cleveland Fire and EMS to form a new union contract that will merge the two systems entirely. No set projection for a full merger has been established.
Neither the Fire nor EMS unions have been able to come to an agreement with city officials on fair terms of merger as of yet. The Cleveland Metropolitan School District is the largest K—12 district in the state of Ohio, with schools and an enrollment of 55, students during the — academic year.
Approximately 1 square mile 2. The area, which has been a part of the Shaker school district since the s, permits these Cleveland residents to pay the same school taxes as the Shaker residents, as well as vote in the Shaker school board elections.
Cleveland is home slave maker online 16.8 a number of colleges slave maker online 16.8 universities. Most prominent among these is Case Western Reserve Universitya world-renowned research and teaching institution located in University Circle.
A private university with several prominent graduate programs, CWRU was ranked 37th in the nation in by U. In addition to CSU, downtown hosts the metropolitan campus of Cuyahoga Community Collegethe county's two-year higher education institution.
Ohio Technical College is also based in Cleveland. Cleveland's primary daily newspaper is The Plain Dealer. Defunct major newspapers include the Cleveland Pressan afternoon publication which printed its last edition on June 17, ; and the Cleveland Newswhich ceased publication in Additional newspaper coverage includes: The city is also served by Cleveland Magazinea regional culture magazine published monthly; Crain's Cleveland Businessa weekly business newspaper; Cleveland Jewish Newsa weekly Jewish newspaper ; and Cleveland Scenea free alternative weekly paper which absorbed its competitor, the Cleveland Free Times slave maker online 16.8, in In addition, nationally distributed rock magazine Alternative Press was founded in Cleveland inand the publication's headquarters remain in the city.
Combined with nearby Akron and CantonCleveland is ranked as the 19th-largest television market by Nielsen Media Research as of [update] — Cleveland is directly served by 31 AM and FM radio stations22 of which are licensed to the city. Commercial FM music stations are frequently the highest rated stations in the market: Cleveland is home to several major hospital systems, two of which are in University Circle.
Additionally MetroHealth Systemwhich operates the level one trauma center for northeast Ohio, has various locations throughout greater Cleveland. The city of Cleveland has a higher than average percentage of households without a car. Cleveland Hopkins International Airport is the city's major airport and an international airport that formerly served as a main hub for United Airlines.
However, sexual debut timing was unassociated with emerging adult (Wave A cross-sectional anonymous online survey was conducted in April-August creating a lesbian community, identifying both positive and negative aspects. Intergenerational games may support parent-youth sexual health communication.
It holds the distinction of having the first airport-to-downtown rapid transit connection in North America, established in Inthe airport was the site of the first airfield lighting system and the first air traffic control tower. Originally known as Cleveland Municipal Airport, it was the first municipally owned airport in the country. Burke is primarily a commuter and business airport. The Port of Clevelandlocated at the Cuyahoga River's mouth, is a major bulk freight terminal on Lake Erie, receiving much of the raw materials used by the region's manufacturing industries.
Amtrakthe national passenger rail system, provides service to Cleveland, via the Capitol Limited and Lake Shore Limited routes, which stop at Cleveland Lakefront Station. Cleveland has also been identified as a hub for the proposed Ohio Hub project, which would bring high-speed rail to Ohio. It consists of four light rail lines, known as the Blue, Green, and Waterfront linesand a heavy rail line, the Red Line. During construction of the Red Line rapid transit line in the s the citizens of Cleveland voted to build the Downtown Distributor Subway which would have provided a number of Center City stations.
The plan was quashed by highway promoting County Engineer Albert S. Porter and the full development and growth of center city Cleveland has since been significantly impeded hentai 3d anal animation to the resulting inaccessibility. National intercity bus service is provided at a Greyhound station, located just behind the Playhouse Square theater district. Megabus provides service to Cleveland and has a stop at the Stephanie Tubbs Jones Transit Center on the east side of downtown.
Cleveland's road system consists of numbered streets running roughly north—south, and named avenues, which run roughly east—west. The numbered streets are designated "east" or "west", depending where they lie in relation to Ontario Street, which kenyan booty pussy women Public Square. The named avenues that lie both on the east side of the Cuyahoga River and west of Ontario Street receive a "west" designation on slave maker online 16.8 signage.
The xnxx african women downtown avenues which span the Cuyahoga change names on the west side of the river. Three two-digit Interstate highways serve Cleveland directly. Interstate 71 begins just southwest of downtown and is the major route from downtown Cleveland to the chinese nude girl. I runs through the southwestern suburbs and eventually connects Cleveland with Columbus and Cincinnati.
Interstate 77 begins in downtown Cleveland and runs almost due south through the southern suburbs. I sees the least traffic of the three interstates, although it does connect Cleveland to Akron.
Interstate 90 connects the two sides of Cleveland, and is the northern terminus for both I and I Running due east—west through the west side suburbs, I turns northeast at the junction with and I, and is known as the Innerbelt through downtown.
At the junction with the Shoreway, I makes a degree turn known in the area as Dead Man's Curvethen continues northeast, entering Slave maker online 16.8 County near the eastern split with Ohio State Route 2. Cleveland is also served by two three-digit interstates, Interstatewhich enters Cleveland briefly at a few points and Interstatewhich connects I with slave maker online 16.8 junction slave maker online 16.8 I and I just south of downtown.
Two other limited-access highways serve Cleveland. A third highway, the Berea Freeway State Route in partconnects I to the slave maker online 16.8, and forms part of the boundary between Cleveland and Brook Park.
InWalk Score ranked Cleveland the seventeenth most walkable of the fifty largest cities in the United States. Cleveland is home to the Consulate General of the Republic of Slovenia. As of [update] slave maker online 16.8, Cleveland has slave maker online 16.8 sister cities: In addition, Northeast Ohio's Jewish community has an unofficial supportive relationship with the State of Israel.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the city in Ohio. For the metropolitan area, see Greater Cleveland. For other uses, slave maker online 16.8 Cleveland disambiguation. City in Ohio, United States. The Forest City for more, see full list. Location in Ohio and Cuyahoga County. Timeline of Cleveland history. Economy of Greater Cleveland. Films set in Cleveland and Category: Films shot in Cleveland. Sports in Cleveland and List of Cleveland sports teams.
Cleveland Division of Police. Cleveland Division of Fire. Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority. For more information, see Threadex. United States Census Bureau. Slave maker online 16.8 June 6, Kerala hot wife saree aunty mood sex March 27, Retrieved January 6, Archived from the original on May 22, Retrieved November 10, Archived from the original on September 3, Retrieved November 14, Slave maker online 16.8 Association of Counties.
Archived from the original on May 31, Retrieved June 7, Cleveland City Planning Commission. Archived from the original on March 29, kelly khumalo black pussy Retrieved November 18, Retrieved August 10, Statistical Abstract of the United States.
Archived from the original on June 27,
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